About dwelling

About dwelling

In our country, a long-term program of mass housing construction is implemented, the purpose of which is to provide each family with a separate apartment or individual house. The necessary volumes and rates of housing construction are provided mainly by the fact that it is carried out by industrial methods and has a powerful industrial base of factory housing construction. The production specificity of the house-building industry requires unification and relative stability of the products. In this regard, housing construction in our country is conducted mainly on standard projects.

Architectural-spatial and engineering-building solutions of standard houses and apartments must meet a number of different requirements. Thus, the mass housing as a whole should be designed in accordance with the existing economic opportunities of the society, with the most rational and effective use of public funds and material resources allocated for housing construction and operation of the housing stock. The structural systems of typical residential buildings must meet the specifics of industrial production (unification, standardization, maximum seriality and high degree of factory readiness of elements and products with their minimum nomenclature, etc.). The nomenclature of the designed types of buildings ensures their urban maneuverability, i.e. Possibility of application in various building conditions.

Architectural and construction solutions for houses and apartments, their engineering equipment (heating, ventilation, water supply, sewerage, garbage disposal, electricity, gas, etc.) and technical equipment (sanitary appliances, gas and electric cookers, etc.) .) Provide in the home the necessary amenities and a normal microclimate taking into account the climatic conditions of construction (favorable thermal and acoustic modes, lighting, insolation, air exchange, etc.). The layout of apartments should initially contribute to a better organization of life, accommodation of necessary furniture, equipment and other household items. In addition, the spatial solution and decoration of apartments (according to material, color, texture and decor) should not only meet the requirements of comfort and hygiene of residence, but also be fully aesthetically pleasing.

Even this basic, far from complete list of problems of design of standard houses and apartments shows that they can be solved only in complex in scientific research institutes and design organizations.

For mass housing construction, interconnected complexes (series) of standard residential buildings or standard block sections (volume-planning elements of a residential building with one ladder-elevator unit) were developed. Within the framework of each series, it is possible to create residential buildings of different number of storeys, length, configuration, orientation in the countries of the world, the composition of apartments, etc. In addition to house projects or block-sections with apartments for ordinary families (medium size), the series includes projects of specialized residential buildings - for small families, dormitories, etc.

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