Rational organization

Rational organization of housing


A rational planning organization, household equipment and technical equipment of the premises of an apartment is an important part of the improvement of a modern home, without which it is impossible to provide the necessary level of comfort, rationalization of domestic work, and maintenance of optimal hygienic conditions. The role and importance of the technical equipment of the dwelling are constantly increasing - the systems of the engineering equipment of apartment houses are being improved, the level of electrical home equipment is growing, the number of electrical household appliances and appliances in the house is increasing. At the same time, the elements of technical equipment play an increasingly active role in shaping the interior of a modern apartment, influencing its character and aesthetic expressiveness. The desire to facilitate labor-intensive work and reduce the time for housekeeping turns this direction of improving the mass housing into an important social problem. What are the main functions that are desirable to provide with technical equipment? When doing household work, can household appliances be rationally used? How can you reduce the time spent on unproductive domestic work, and instead engage in the upbringing of children, self-education, communication, active recreation?

These groups and cultural-households carried out by the family include:
- cooking and related work (storage, cold and heat treatment of food, washing dishes, etc.);
- Care of clothes and linen - (washing, drying, ironing, sewing, repair);
- Care of the apartment (minor repairs, washing floors, walls, windows, rubbing floors, removing dust);
- Sanitary and hygienic and medical processes (personal hygiene, massage, body and hair care);
- maintenance of comfortable microclimate parameters (heating, ventilation, air purification, ozonation, cooling);
- information and communication (tele- and radio receivers, telephone, intercom);
- amateur classes (processing of film photo films, sawing);
- Care for household machines and appliances (minor repairs, cleaning, washing).

It was assumed that a significant proportion of the family's economic functions would be transferred to the public service sector. However, forecasts of the intensive reduction in the volume of the household due to the fulfillment of a number of economic works for servicing the family by the services of everyday life were not justified. At present, according to a survey and research conducted in various cities of the Soviet Union, it is established that the majority of the population prefers home-based family services, believes that such kinds of work as cooking and eating, amateur classes, minor repairs necessary for normal life activities families, regulate the relationships of family members, bring up mutual assistance and support. The desired direction is the reduction and simplification of labor-intensive processes.

Now the time spent on household maintenance is significant. It is comparable to the workload in the workplace and is for an urban family of four people, an average of 40 hours per week.

Rational planning and organization of ancillary rooms of apartments, the expedient composition and placement of equipment, the introduction in the everyday life of promising samples of household appliances can reduce the expenditure of time and energy on time-consuming and prolonged domestic work. Thus, the use of new high-efficiency models of plates and frying cupboards, automatic washing machines and dishwashers can reduce the time spent on cooking by an average of 25-30%, washing dishes by 40%, washing and taking care of linens and clothes by 30-35% . Therefore, to improve living conditions of life, increase the comfort of apartments, the level of technical equipment, rational equipment of premises is of primary importance.

The basic economic works are carried out in the premises of kitchens and sanitary units. Relatively small in areas they are saturated with engineering networks, sanitary and technical and electrical equipment - machines, appliances, stationary furniture and other items necessary for various household tasks. Therefore, the methods of rational organization, technical equipment and household equipment, we will look at examples of complex equipment of kitchens and sanitary units.

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